Lady V .... I had to do a little research on this myself as part of my training .... and as far as the pentagram and pentacle goes .... i gathered alot of info and different schools of thought ... but this is what i have on it, from various info around the net ... if it helps
With regards to the pentacle and pentagram;
the pentagram is a two dimensional representation of a 3 dimensional object (i.e. the Pentacle). Think about it for a moment; the suffix "gram" means something that is written or drawn; it has only two dimensions length and width; no depth - a diagram is a drawing of some object; a telegram is a written message. I can wear a pentacle around my neck; I can place it on my altar; it is 3 dimensional having length, width and depth.
The pentacle has been used by a great many religions, even in Christianity where it has represented the five wounds of Christ and has represented Mary, his mother.
In some Wiccan tradtions the upside down pentacle represents a second degree person in the tradtions, so there are other meanings than just Satanism.The upside down pentacle or pentagram is absolutely not Satanic. Just because the Satanists have adopted it; that it has been badly misrepresented in media productions and it fits conveniently with fundamentalist Christians choose to believe; does not make it so!!!
Meanwhile I have seen pentacle and pentagram used nearly interchangably but I believe there is a distint difference.
a talisman or magical object, typically disk-shaped and inscribed with a pentagram or other figure, and used as a symbol of the element of earth
a five-pointed star that is formed by drawing a continuous line in five straight segments, often used as a mystic and magical symbol.
So it would appear that a pentagram is drawing the five pointed star and when that is put on a talisman or magical object, typically disk-shaped and inscribed with a pentagram we then refer to the object to be a pentacle.
The pentagram is an ancient figure used ceremonially to bless, portect and to balance. The pentagram is a five pointed star; the five rays representing the energy of the four elements: earth, air, fire and water. The fifth arm of the pentagram is symbolic of spirit: ether, essence, soul - but not in the Christian sense. Thus, the pentagram symbolises the four great natural elements united in harmony with the spirit of humanity. It is this harmonious relationship - spirit interacting with the power of the elemental forces of nature - from which one can derive the ability to work magic. Some name it intent, or emotion, but the spirit is the magical force that enables us to work with nature to will enchantments, to bless our work, to protect ourselves and balance the elements within spells and within our lives.
The four sides of the pentagram are not restricted to earth, air, fire and water - they can represent hatever elemental forces one wishes; thus the pentagram'a potency as a symbol is virtually limitless. Most often, however, the pentagram represents the five stages of life - Birth, Initiation, Love, Repose and Death: the cyclic nature of existence for all of us.
The pentacle has always been counted as very protective. In medieval times it was used as a protection against demons, and it is worn, visualized or placed around the house by modern-day Wiccans to protect.
There are two types of pentacles in witchcraft – a working pentacle and a ritual pentacle. The working pentacle is black on one side and white on the other and is used to manifest magickal energies within intent and desire to make something a reality.....
In many, many cultures it was a symbol of knowledge and truth. (I seem to recall a story of a well with 5 streams coming from it, and 5 salmon?) In some cases, forbidden knowledge.
It is strongly associated with the apple, because when you cut an apple horizontally through the middle, you get a 5 pointed star. (The apple is often seen as a symbol of knowledge - remember the Adam & Eve story!)
It is called the "Star of Life". It's interesting to note that 5-fold symmetries are almost exclusively (but oh-so-commonly) found in living organisms. (5 fingers, 5 toes, many flowers, starfish, apple, etc.)
It is a union of male and female principals. The circle is considered feminine, the "sticks" masculine. The inner space & circle the womb, the points the male organs.
"As above, so below" - as with the universe so with people. The whole person, made up (ideally) of all components in balance. You can see it makes the shape of a person, reinforcing the idea of both this balance inside ourselves AND the Law "as above so below";
Star of life, Witches' foot, Blazing star, Pentalpha, Druid's Root,
Witches' cross, Witches' star, Endless knot, and to some:
Satan star, Goblin's cross